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|Intensity of sound
|Tip Head Material
Ultrasound is an elastic mechanical vibration wave, which is fundamentally different from electromagnetic waves. Because electromagnetic waves propagate in a vacuum, and ultrasonic waves must propagate in the medium, the entire process of expansion and compression occurs when passing through the medium.
In liquids, a negative pressure is created during the expansion process. If the ultrasonic energy is strong enough, the expansion process can create bubbles in the liquid or tear the liquid into small cavities. These cavities are closed instantaneously, and an instantaneous pressure of up to 3000 MPa is generated when the cavity is closed, which is called cavitation. The entire process is completed in 400 μs.
Cavitation refines substances and makes emulsions, accelerates target ingredients into solvents, and improves extraction rates. In addition to cavitation, many secondary effects of ultrasound are also conducive to the transfer and extraction of target components.
The significance of cavitation is the reaction that occurs when a bubble bursts. At some points, the bubbles no longer absorb the ultrasonic energy, and implosion occurs. Gases and vapors in bubbles or cavities are rapidly adiabaticly compressed, resulting in extremely high temperatures and pressures.
The volume of the bubble is extremely small compared to the total volume of the liquid, so the heat generated is instantly dissipated, and it will not have a significant impact on environmental conditions. The cooling rate after the collapse of the cavity is estimated to be about 1010 ° C / s.
Ultrasonic holes provide a unique interaction between energy and matter. The resulting high temperature and pressure can lead to the formation of free radicals and other components.
In a pure liquid, when a hole is broken, it always remains spherical due to the same surrounding conditions; however, close to the solid boundary, the breakage of the hole is non-uniform. Kinetic energy, which moves in the bubble and penetrates the bubble wall.
The impact force of the jet on the solid surface is very strong, which can cause great damage to the impact area, resulting in a highly active fresh surface. The impact force produced by the burst bubble deformation on the surface is several times greater than the impact force generated by the bubble resonance.
The above-mentioned effect of ultrasonic waves is very effective in extracting various target components from different types of samples.
The high temperature and pressure generated on the contact surface between the organic solvent and the solid substrate by applying ultrasonic waves, plus the oxidizing energy of the free radicals generated by ultrasonic decomposition, etc., thereby providing high extraction energy.
(1) Compared with conventional extraction methods, ultrasonic extraction technology has high extraction efficiency and short extraction time;
(2) Ultrasonic extraction is not easily limited by the use of solvents, allowing the addition of co-extractants to further increase the polarity of the liquid phase and improve the extraction efficiency;
(3) Compared with supercritical CO2 extraction and ultrahigh pressure extraction, the ultrasonic extraction equipment is simple and the extraction cost is low;
(4) In most cases, the ultrasonic extraction operation has few steps, the extraction process is simple, it is not easy to cause pollution to the extract, and the extraction temperature is low, which is suitable for the extraction of heat-sensitive target components.
Compared with conventional extraction technology, ultrasonic extraction is faster, cheaper and more efficient.
Compared with the boiling and alcohol precipitation processes, ultrasonic extraction has the following outstanding features:
(1) No need for high temperature
(2) Atmospheric pressure extraction, good safety, easy operation, convenient maintenance
(3) High extraction efficiency
(4) Broad spectrum. Wide applicability, all kinds of Chinese herbal medicine ingredients can be ultrasonically extracted
(5) Ultrasonic extraction has a small relationship with the properties of the solvent and the target extract
(6) Reduce energy consumption
(7) The amount of raw materials for medicinal materials is large, multiplied or increased several times, and there are few impurities, and the effective ingredients are easy to separate and purify
(8) Low extraction process cost and significant comprehensive economic benefits
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