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To get high frequencies to convert into vibration, a vibrating element with a similar frequency is used. This is also known as a converter or transducer. The piezo-electric converter changes its length as a result of an alternating voltage. In order to increase or reduce the amplitude of the vibrations produced by the converter, a mechanical amplifier or booster is used. The amplification factor of the booster is determined by the ratio between the surface area of the top and bottom. A booster which contact surface with the converter is two times as large as the lower side, will, compared to the converter, double the amplitude.
To transfer the vibration to the product that needs welding, a sonotrode or horn is indispensable. This is a highly specialized and unique part, different for every product. In addition, the sonotrode will ensure that the vibrations are given the desired amplitude.
◆ High performance: The mechanical Q value is high, and the electro-acoustic conversion efficiency is over 90%.
◆ Large amplitude: The vibrator has a high seismic velocity, which is more than 50% higher than that of a magnetostrictive transducer.
◆ Heat resistance: The use of high-quality materials, good heat resistance, low resonance impedance, and low heat generation.
◆ Strong structure: It is fastened with high quality standard steel bolts and has high reliability.
◆ Electrical parameters: unique production technology, digital equipment processing and assembly, high parameter performance and good consistency.
In order for an ultrasonic transducer to be used in a welding application the longitudinal vibrations on the end of the transducer need to be amplified and concentrated onto a small surface area. This is accomplished through the use of an amplitude transformer, or horn, manufactured from a titanium or aluminum alloy.
In ultrasonic welding, the horn is brought into contact with one piece of thermoplastic that is to be joined to another piece. Pressure is applied to the two pieces of thermoplastic and the ultrasonic vibrations pass through the first piece to the interface with the second piece. Frictional heat at this interface will melt the material and once the vibrations stop, the temperature drops, and the plastic solidifies the two pieces of plastic will have bonded together.
Using ultrasonic transducers for welding is beneficial because it is:
– Fast and efficient
– Produces a strong bond
– Eliminates the use of solvents and adhesives
– and Heat generated is confined and thus rapidly dissipated
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